Calculation of Tidal Constituents Using a Numerical Model in the Shatt al-Arab River Estuary


  • Physics Department, Marine Science Center, Basrah University
  • Physics Department, Marine Science Center, Basrah University



Hydrodynamic, tide, Shatt al-Arab, estuary.


To calculate the tidal constituents in the Shatt al-Arab River estuary and determine the nature
of the dominant tides in the research area, a numerical model in one dimension using the Mike 11
software package was created. After calibration and model verification, it was discovered that there
was a good match between the model's results and field measurements in terms of water discharge
and sea level rise.
The model's findings revealed that the values for the key dominant constituents K1, O1, M2, and
S2, are 0.3374, 0.2154, 0.4763, and 0.1434, respectively.
Knowing the tidal regime in the study area, which turns out to be of a mixed type, semi-diurnal
dominant, is made possible by studying the analysis of the main constituents


Al-Taei, Samer Adnan, Al-Fartusi, Adel Jassim, and Abdulhussein, Ihsan Abdulkareem (2019).

Determination of Hydrodynamic Resistance Coefficient (Manning’s Coefficient) in Shatt al-Arab

River, Southern of Iraq-Basrah. Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development,23(3):78-88.

Basrah Weather Station. (2018). Iraqi Meteorological Organization. unpublished data.

DHI, (2007). MIKE11 Flow Model, hydrodynamic module, Danish Hydraulic Institute, Copenhagen,


H. Mirfenderesk, and R. Tomlinson. (2009). An Investigation of the Change in the Tidal Signal in an

Estuary as a Result of Sea Level Rise and Development at Short -Medium Time Scale. Journal of

Coastal Research special issue 56:641-645.

H. Mirfenderesk; R. Tomlinson, and L. Hughes. (2008). Tidal Analysis of the Coomera River Estuary,Engineers Australia, 9th National Conference on Hydraulics in Water Engineering Darwin

Convention Centre, Australia 23-26.

H. Mirfenderisk, and R. Tomlinson. (2014). Numerical Modelling of Tidal Dynamic and Water

Circulation at the Gold Coast Broadwater, Australia, Journal of Coastal Research Special Issue 50:

- 281

Hsu, S.A. (1988). Coastal Meteorology. Academic Press. Inc., New York, NY. p 260.

Hussein, Najah Abboud ; Karim, Hussein Hamid ; Al-Saad, Hamid Talib ; Youssef, Osama , and Al-

Sabunji, Azhar (1991). Shatt al-Arab basic scientific studies. Marine Science Center publications

(10). Basrah university. p392.

Lafta, Ali Abdulridha. (2019). Numerical Modeling for Field Study of Physical Characteristics in Iraqi

Marine Water. A thesis Submitted to the College of Education of pure science. Basrah University,

in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Doctorate of Philosophy of Science in

Physics, in Arabic (unpublished)

Lafta, Ali Abdulridha. (2022). Investigation of tidal asymmetry in the Shatt al-Arab river estuary,

Northwest of Arabian Gulf. Oceanologia 64: 376-386.

Al-Mahdi, Iyad Abdel-Jalil and Al-Asadi, Safaa Abdel-Amir. (2007). Some geomorphological

characteristics of the Shatt al-Arab stream. Basra Research Journal for Human Sciences, Part (B),


Pugh, D. T. (1987). Tides surge and mean sea-level, J. Wiley, New York.

R. M. Reynolds. (1993). “Physical oceanography of the Gulf, Strait of Hormuz, and the Gulf of Oman:

Results from the Mt Mitchell expedition,” Mar. Pollut. Bull., 27: 35–59.

Suphat Vongvisessomjai, and Phairot Chatanantavet. (2006). Analytical model of interaction of tide

and river flow Songklanakarin J. Sci. Technol. 28 (6):1150-1161W.R. Craw Ford. (1982). Analysis of Fortnightly and Monthly Tides. International Hydrographic

Review, Monaco, LIX (1),131-142.