A study of Amoebiasis among children in Thi-Qar Province/Iraq


  • Department of Biology/College of Education for Pure Sciences/Thi-Qar University, Thi-Qar,64001, Iraq
  • Department of Biology/College of Education for Pure Sciences/Thi-Qar University, Thi-Qar,64001, Iraq


determine the prevalence of the Amoebic dysentery among children under the The present study aims to
age of five years in Thi-Qar province during the period from October 2022 to August 2023 and to study the effects of some factors such as sex, age, location, source of drinking water and others on the
prevalence of the disease. Study was carried out at the Bint Al-Huda Educational Hospital for Women
and Children and Mohammed al-Musawi Hospital in Thi-Qar Province, 697 samples of feces were collected from children with diarrhea and examined by direct microscopic examination. The results
showed that 100 out of 697 and %14.34 % of children were infected with Entamoeba spp. No significant
differences (p>0.05) were recorded in prevalence of Entamoeba spp. according to sex and the infected
males %7.46% more than infected females 6.88%. A significant differences (p≤0.05) were observed in the prevalence of Entamoeba spp. according to age groups, the highest infection percent on the age group (48-60 months) 5% and the lowest infection percent on the age group (<12 months) 1.43 %. No
significant differences (p>0.05) were recorded in prevalence of Entamoeba spp. according to months of
the year, the high percent 23.33% in June and the lowest percent 10.67% in November. The study recorded significant differences (p≤0.05) in infection percent according to the location, the percent of infected children living in rural 9.75% more than infected children living in the urban 4.59%. The study
recorded significant differences in prevalence of Entamoeba spp. according parent educational level. The
high percent of infection was recorded in children belonging to parents without educational attainment 6.89%. The results showed that there were no differences (p>0.05) in prevalence of Entamoeba spp. according to source of drinking water.


Abdel-Dayem, M., Al Zou'bi, R., Hani, R. B., & Amr, Z. S. (2014). Microbiological and parasitological investigation among food handlers in hotels in the Dead Sea area, Jordan. Journal of microbiology, Immunology and Infection, 47(5), 377-380.

Al-Abadi, Fadel Abbas and Al-Kenzawi, Abdul Hassan Hamdan Abdullah - (2000). A field study of parasitic causes of diarrhea for children in the city of Nasiriyah. Basra Research Journal, special issue of the Dhi Qar University Conference: pages 1-12.

Al-Ebrahimi, H. N. M. (2013). Detection of major virulence factors of Entamoeba histolytica by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) Technique. MSc. Thesis, College Medicine University Al-Qadisiya:110 PP.

Al-Fahdawi, Hamdi Abd Mahmoud (2002). Study of the contamination of various water sources with pathogenic parasites in the city of Ramadi. Master's thesis, College of Science, Anbar University: pages 60-71

Al-Janabi, Farah Abdel Karim - (2002). A study on the epidemiology of intestinal parasites in the city of Baghdad. Master’s thesis, College of Science, Al-Mustansiriya University: pages 62-79.

Al-Janabi, Marwan Abdel Hadi and Al-Takriti, Elham Ayed (2014). Prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica infection among children attending the Central Children's Hospital in Baghdad. Iraqi J

Al-Kubaisi, Abdel-Wahab Bdewi Hussein - (2002). An immuno-epidemiological study of patients infected with Entamoeba histolytica. Doctoral thesis, College of Science, Al-Mustansiriya University: page 125.

Al-Khafaji, Maani Sahar Abd - (2011). Some immunological criteria for patients infected with the Entamoeba histolytica parasite and histological variables in albino mice. Master's thesis, College of Science for Girls, University of Babylon: pages 52-60.

Al-Moussawi, Kawthar Abdel Hussein - (2001). The spread of intestinal parasitic infections in the city of Karbala. Master's thesis, College of Education (Ibn al-Haytham), University of Baghdad: pages 77-69 Al-Mozan, Hanaa Daaj Khalaf - (2011). Study of intestinal parasite infection and its relationship to some blood parameters in children from Dhi Qar Governorate. Master’s thesis, College of Science for Girls. University of Baghdad: pages 48-57.

Al-Masoudi, H. K. A. (2009).The effect of some plants extracts and drugs on immobilized cysteine proteinase of Entamoeba histolytica isolated from diarrhea in Al-Exandaria Districts / Babylon Province

.Ph.D. Thesis, College Science University of Baghdad.116pp.

Al-Masoudi, Hiyam Khalis (2006). Parasitic infections in infants with diarrhea in Alexandria district / Babylon Governorate. Babylon University Journal, Volume 11 (4), Pages 878-882

Al-Mosa, H.A.(2002) . Epidemiological study of the parasitic causes of some intestinal disorders of human in Al-Hilla city. M.Sc. Thesis, Coll. .Med., Kufa.Univ. : 92PP .

Al Nuaimi, Samaher Hazem Sultan (2001). An epidemiological study of parasites causing diarrhea in Nineveh Governorate and estimation of the level of immunoglobulins and serum albumin in patients infected with some intestinalparasites. Master's thesis, College of Science, University of Mosul: page 129-1.

Al-Novoli, Doaa Muhammad Yahya - (2004). Staining techniques for detecting E. histolytica while tracking histological changes caused by experimental amoebiasis in mice. Master's thesis, College of Science, University of Mosul: pages 79-89

Al-Nasiri, Mubarak Awad Abd - (2007). Epidemiological study on the pathogenesis of dysentery amoeba-27 Entamoeba histolytica for children admitted and hospitalized from postnatal age up to (12) years in Baiji General Hospital and the effect of alcoholic and aqueous extracts of some plants on them, Master’s thesis, College of Education, Tikrit University: pages 43-47.

Al-Rikabi, Noha Jabbar - (2006). A study of some intestinal parasites that cause diarrhea in children in the city of Nasiriyah. Master's thesis, College of Education, Dhi Qar University: pages 64-68.

Al-Rikabi, Noha Jabbar - (2006). A study of some intestinal parasites that cause diarrhea in children in the city of Nasiriyah. Master's thesis, College of Education, Dhi Qar University: pages 64-68.

Al-Samarrai, Salah Abdel Hassan Alwan (2008). Study of some pathological manifestations of Entamoeba histolytica infection among people in the city of Samarra. Master's thesis, College of Science, Tikrit University: 82 pages.

ALSaeed, A. T., and Issa, S. H. (2006) . Frequency of Giardia lamblia among children in Duhok, Northern Iraq. East. Medit. Heal. J., 12(5). (Abstract).

Al-Shuaibi, Muhannad Muhammad Mikhlif - (2000). A comparative study of intestinal parasite infection among primary school students in Baghdad Governorate. Master's thesis, college. Science, Al- Mustansiriya University: page 9959.

Al-Tarfi, Zainab Ali Hassan (2014). Study of the virulence factors (EhCP1and EhCP5) and some hematological and immunological changes in people infected with the parasite Entamoeba

histolytica in Najaf Governorate. Doctoral thesis, College of Science, University of Kufa: page 142. Al-Yassaree, H. F. (2004) . Isolation and identification of three protozoal enteroparasites, E. histolytica, Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum in Babylon province. M. Sc. Thesis, College of

Science, AL-Kufa University.

Balakrishnan, A., Chinthala, M., Polagani, R. K., & Vo, D. V. N. (2022). Removal of tetracycline from wastewater using g-C3N4 based photocatalysts: A review. Environmental Research, 114660.

Behnia, M., Haghighi, A., Komeylizadeh, H., Tabaei, S. J. S., & Abadi, A. (2008). Inhibitory effects of Iranian Thymus vulgaris extracts on in vitro growth of Entamoeba histolytica. The Korean journal

of parasitology, 46(3), 153.

Bonner, M., Amard, V.r., Bar-Pinatel, C., Charpentier, F.d.r., Chatard, J.-M., Desmuyck, Y., Ihler, S., Rochet, J.-P., de La Tribouille, V.r.R. and Saladin, L. (2014) Detection of the amoeba Entamoeba gingivalis in periodontal pockets. Parasite 21, 30.

Carrero, J. C., Reyes-López, M., Serrano-Luna, J., Shibayama, M., Unzueta, J., Leon-Sicairos, N., & de la Garza, M. (2020). Intestinal amoebiasis: 160 years of its first detection and still remains as a

health problem in developing countries. International Journal of Medical Microbiology, 310(1), 151358.

Chavez,L.H. (2007) . Amoebiasis .J.biomed.and Biotec.,34(2) :242-254 .

Dennehy, P. H. (2019). Introduction to Clinical Infectious Diseases. Introduction to Clinical Infectious Diseases, 157–168.

Edward, S. C.; AL-Mukh S.A.and AL-Ani, W. A. ( 2000) . Epidemiology of Bloody Diarrhea, Iraqi,J. Com. Med.,13 (7): 6-9 .

Ejaz, M.; Murtaza, G.; Ahmad, M.; Khan, S.A.; Hussain, I.; Najam-ul-Saqib, Q.; Hassan Bin Asad, M.H.; Wasim, A. and Farzana, k. (2011). Determination of the prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica in human at a private fertilizer company hospital in Pakistan using microscopic technique, African Journal of Micro Res. 5(2) , pp: 149-152.

Fallah, E., Shahbazi, A., Yazdanjoii, M., & Rahimi-Esboei, B. (2014).Differential detection of Entamoeba histolytica from Entamoeba dispar by parasitological and nested multiplex polymerase chain reaction methods. Journal Analytical Research in Clinical Medicine, 2(1), 27-32.

Flaih, M. H., Khazaal, R. M., Kadhim, M. K., Hussein, K. R., & Alhamadani, F. A. B. (2021). The epidemiology of amoebiasis in Thi-Qar Province, Iraq (2015-2020): differentiation of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar using nested and real-time polymerase chain

reaction. Epidemiology and health, 43

Gomes, M. F., y Piontti, A. P., Rossi, L., Chao, D., Longini, I., Microbiology Reports, 2, 143-154. Halloran, M. E., & Vespignani, A. (2014). Assessing the international spreading risk associated

with the 2014 West African Ebola outbreak. PLoS currents, 6.

Hamad, N. R. and Ramzy, I. A. (2012). Epidemiology of Entamoeba histolytica among children in Erbil province, Kurdistan region-Iraq. Journal of Research in Biology. 1: 057-062.

Ismail, A. M. (2006) . Diagnostic study of Entamoeba histolytica/ Entamoeba dispar and its relation with pathogenic bacteria causing diarrhea in children. Ph. D. Thesis, College of Medicine, Tikrit University .

Marie, C.; Verkerke, H. P.; Theodorescu, D. and Petri, W.A. (2015). A whole-genome RNAi screen uncovers a novel role for human potassium channels in cell killing by the parasite Entamoeba histolytica. Scientific reports

Melendez-Lopez, S.G.; Herdman, S.; Hirata, K.; Choi, M-H.; Choe, Y.; Craik, C.; Caffrry, C.; Hasell, E.; Chavez-Munguia, B.; Chen, Y.T.; Roush, W.R.; McKerrow, J.; Eckmann, L.; Guo, J.; Stanley, S.L. and Reed, S.L.(2007). Use of recombinant Entamoeba histolytica cysteine proteinase 1 to identify a potent inhibitor of amoebic invasion in a human colonic model.J.Euk. cell. , 6: 1130-1136.

Makawi, Z. A., & Abbas, A. K. (2020). Prevalence of intestinal protozoa in cattle in some areas of Wasit Province, Iraq. Plant Archives, 20(1), 3667-3672.

Mumtaz, S.; Siddigui H. and Ashfaq. T.(2009) . Frequency and risk factors for intestinal parasitic infection in children under five years age at a tertiary care hospital in Karachi . Journal Pakistan Medical Associatation. 59: 216

Obadiah, H. I. (2012). Review of the survey of Entamoeba histolytica in Children; a Brief Focus on Nigeria Situation: a Review. Journal Physiology and Pharmacology Advances. 2(3):150-157. Ozer, T.; Yula, E.; Deveci, O.; Tekin, A.; Durmaz, S. and Yanık , K. (2013). Investigation of Entamoeba histolytica in stool specimens by direct microscopic examination and ELISA in a hospital. Dicle Medical Journal. 38(3): 294-297.

Oliveira, M. Q. D. (2022). Estudo da prevalência de parasitos oportunistas em portadores do vírus HIV em situação de vulnerabilidade social.

Pinilla, A. E.; Lopez, M. C.; and Viashs, D. F. (2008). History of Entamoeba histolytica

protozoan"Revista medica de chile, 136(1) :118-124 .

Sayyari, A.A.; Imanzadeh, F.; Yazdi, S.A.B.; Karami, H. and Yaghoobi, M. (2005). Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in the Islamic republic of iran. East.Med.Heal.J., 11: 377-383.

Saha, A., Gaurav, A. K., Bhattacharya, S., & Bhattacharya, A. (2015). Molecular basis of pathogenesis in amoebiasis. Current Clinical

Siddiqua, T. (2016) Prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia infection among diabetic and non diabetic patients of Bangladesh, University of Dhaka.230PP.

Salman, A. A. (2002) . Epidemiological characteristics of amoebic dysentery as a cause of blood diarrhea among children under five years old in Tikrit city-2001. Iraqi. J. Comm. Med.15: 85-87.

Sultan, B. A., and AL-Jeboori, N. H. (2005) . Epidemiological and pathological association of parasitic appendicitis. Midl. East. J. Fam. Med., (Abstract).

Tasawar, Z.; Kausar, S. and Mhlshari, D. (2010). Prevalence of E.histlytica in humans. Pakistan Journal Pharmaceutical Sciences. 23(3): 344-348.

Taylor, A. L., and Llewelyn, M. J. (2010). Superantigen-Induced Proliferation of Human CD4 + CD25 − T Cells Is Followed by a Switch to a Functional Regulatory Phenotype . The Journal of Immunology, 185(11), 6591–6598.

Yimam, A. (2016). Intestinal parasitic Infections among School-age Children in Mekaneselam Health Center, Borena, Northeast Ethiopia, Addis Ababa University 34PP.

Wegayehu T, Adamu H, Petros B (2013) Prevalence of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium speciesinfections among children and cattle in North Shewa Zone, Ethiopia. BMC Infect Dis 13: 419.

Zaed, H. A. A. (2018). A Study of the prevalence of human intestinal parasites in some primary school children in Houn city, Libya. Academic Research Journal, 11, 654679.