Effect of Haptoglobin Genotype on Essential Mineral Levels in Patients With Sickle Cell Anemia, Hepatitis C: A comparative Analysis


  • University of Thi-Qar/ Collage of Vet-Medicine.
  • University of Thi-Qar/ Collage of Science.
  • University of Thi-Qar/ Collage of Science.


The current study was conducted in the laboratories of the Marsh Research Center, the Center for Genetic Diseases, and Al-Hussein Teaching Hospital during the period from June 2022 to January 2023, with the aim of studying the genetic polymorphism of the haptoglobin (Hp) gene and its relationship to levels of essential minerals in patients with sickle cell anemia. Hepatitis C, and sickle cell anemia with hepatitis C. a total of 130 participants were classified, (40) control groups, (40) patients with sickle cell anemia, (40) patients with hepatitis C, and (10) sickle cell patients with hepatitis C .
DNA was isolated and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) performed using genotype-specific primers for the three regions of the haptoglobin gene, and genotypes were determined after electrophoresis on agarose gels and determining the amplified fraction of each allele.Iron, copper, zinc, and chromium in blood serum were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry according to the manufacturer's procedures.
The study found that the Hp2-2 genotype was more common in patients with sickle cell anemia, hepatitis, and both sickle cell anemia and hepatitis compared to the healthy control group.However, there were no significant differences in this genotype between the three diseases. In all patients, the level of iron and copper in the serum was significantly higher compared to the control group.and In all patients, the study showed a significant depletion of serum zinc compared to the control group,And no significant difference in serum chromium concentration between the patients and the control group.Regarding the polymorphisms of haptoglobin, the study did not find a statistically significant relationship between these genetic variations and the levels of iron, copper, and chromium in any of the participant groups. However, the concentrations of zinc differed between the three types of haptoglobin.


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