Molecular Study of Co-Infection between Giardia Lamblia and Helicobacter Pylori in Non- Symptomatic Children in Thi-Qar Province,Iraq


  • Bassad A. Al-Aboody Department of Biology - College of Science - Thi-Qar University.
  • Safaa A.Mouhsen Directorate General of Education in Thi-Qar province


Giardia lamblia, Helicobacter pylori, co-infection, PCR


The current study was carried out in Thi-Qar Province which included a collection of stool samples from
non-symptoms children. The aim of the study was to detect of co-infection of Giardia. lamblia with
Helicobacter pylori in non-symptoms children. Atotal 96 stool samples taken children were under five
years of both sex and examined by PCR for detection of G. lamblia. The results showed that the percentage
of positive samples was 32 positive and 64 negative. The most infection was in females more than males.
The highest infection with G. lamblia according to PCR was in rural more than in urban population. The
highest infection rate with G. lamblia in the age group (1-12 months) , Patients and the lowest age group
(37-48 months) .A total of 96 samples were examined by PCR for diagnosis of G. lamblia also to
detection of H. pylori . The results showed 32 positive samples with G. lamblia and only 14 positive
samples with H. pylori. The number of samples that have co-infection between G. lamblia with H. pylori
is 13. The BLAST results for DNA sequencing showed that isolation for G. lamblia different with the
isolates recorded at the National Center for Biotechnology (NCBI); therefore, these isolates were
registered in NCBI as new isolates under the GenBank accession numbers, that including two isolates per
microorganism. G. lamblia, isolate IQ No.1 (MN096738) and G. lamblia co-infection with H. pylori
isolate IQ No.2 (MN096739). The accessions number for isolates of H. pylori are, seq1(MN115555) and
H. pylori co-infection with G. lamblia isolates seq2 (MN115556).


Ridley, J. W.; (2012). Parasitology for Medical and Clinical Laboratory Professionals.; USA. 48-

Ivanov, A. I. (2010). Giardia and Giardiasis. Bulgarian Journal of Veterinary Medicine.; 13(2):65-

Ford, BJ. (2005). "The discovery of Giardia" (pdf). The Microscope. 53 (4): 148–153.

Nygård, K.; Schimmer, B.; Søbstad.; Walde, A.; Tveit, I.; Langeland, N.; Hausken, T.and

Aavitsland, P. (2006). "A large community outbreak of waterborne giardiasis-delayed detection

in a non-endemic urban area". BMC Public Health. 6 (1): 141. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-6-141.

Fock, K.M. and Ang, T.L. (2010). Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric

cancer in Asia. Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology. 25. 479-486.

(Nihan, C.; Sureyya, G.Y.; Nurten, B.; Emrah, A.; Zafer, B. and Belkis, U. (2011).

Comparison of Helicobacter pylori antibody detection in stool with other diagnostic tests for

infection. Asian Pacific Journal Cancer Prevention. 12. 1077-1081.

Delport, W.and van der Merwe, SW. (2007). "The transmission of Helicobacter pylori: the

effects of analysis method and study population on inference". Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol.

(2): 21536.

Samie, A.; Guerrant, R.; Barrett, L.; Bessong, P.; Igumbor, E. and Obi, C. (2009). Prevalence

of Intestinal Parasitic and Bacterial Pathogens in Diarrhoeal and Non-diarroeal Human Stools

from Vhembe District.; South Africa. J HEALTH POPUL NUTR.; 27(6):739-745.

Ankarklev, J.; Hestvik, E.; Lebbad, M.; Lindh, J.; Kaddu-Mulindwa, DH.; Andersson, JO.;

Tylleskar, T.; Tumwine, JK.and Svard, SG. (2012). Common coinfections of Giardia

intestinalis and Helicobacter pylori in non- symptomatic Ugandan children. PLoS Negl Trop Dis

: e1780.

Paul, S.; Chandra, D.; Ray, DD.; Tewari, AK.; Rao, JR.; Banerjee, PS.; Baidya, S.and Raina,

OK. (2008) Prevalence and molecular characterization of bovine Cryptosporidium isolates in

India. Vet Parasitol 153:143–146.

Santos, H.; Bandea, R.; Martins, L.; de Macedo, H.; Peralta, RH.; Peralta, J.; Ndubuisi, M.

and daSilva, A. (2015). Differential identification based on the analysis of 18S rRNA. Parasitol.

Res.106:883– 888.

Dogliani, C.; Boni, M.; Cielo, R.; Laurino, L.; Pelosio, P.; Braidotti, P.and Viale, G. (1992).

Gastric giardiasis. J Clin Pathol.; 45 (11): 964-967.

Shafie, R..; Jahani, M. R..; Rezaeian, M..; Amini, A..; Metvayi, A. R.; Mirahmadi, H..;

Daryani, N. E. and Keramati, M. R. (2009). Giardia lamblia and Helicobacter coinfection.

Iranian J. Publ. Health.; 38(1):127-130.

Naous, A.; Al-Tannir, M.; Naja, Z.; Ziade, F.and El-Rajab, M. (2007). Fecoprevalence and

determinants of Helicobacter pylori infection among asymptomatic children in Lebanon. J Med

Liban 55: 138-144.

Yakoob, J.; Jafri, W.; Abid, S.; Jafri, N.; Hamid, S. and Shah, H.

(2014). Helicobacter pylori virulence and cancer pathogenesis. Future Oncol 10: 1487-1500.

El-Badry, A. A.; Ghieth, M. A.; Ahmed, D. A. and Ismail, M. A. M. (2017). Giardia

Intestinalis and Helicobacter Pylori Co-Infection: Estimated Risks and Predictive Factors in

Egypt. Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology J. Egypt. Soc. Parasitol. (JESP), 47(471),


Lebbad, M.; Petersson, I.; Karlsson, L.; Botero-Kleiven, S. and Andersson, JO. (2011).

Multilocus Genotyping of Human Giardia Isolates Suggests Limited Zoonotic Transmission and

Association between Assemblage B and Flatulence in Children. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 5: e1262.

Sahagun, J.; Clavel, A.; Goni, P.; Seral, C.and Llorente, M. (2008). Correlation between the

presence of symptoms and the Giardia duodenalis genotype. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 27:


New man, RD.; Moore, SR.; Lima, AM. (2001). A longitudinal study of Giardia lamblia in north

–east Brazilian children. Trop Med Int Health; 6: 624– 634.

Savioli, L.; Smith, H. and Thompson, A. (2006): Giardia and Cryptosporidium join the

“Neglected Diseases Initiative”. Trends Parasitol.; 22(5):203-208.

Okyay, P.; Ertng, S.; Gultekin, B.; Onen, O. and Berser, E. (2004). Intestinal parasites

prevalence and related risk factors in school children.; a western city sample Turkey. BMC public

Health ;4: 64.

Rinne, S.; Rodas, EJ.; Galer – Unti, R.; Glickman, N.and Glickman, LT. (2005). prevalence

and risk factors for protozon and nematode among children in Ecuadorian highland community.

Tran R Soc Trop Med Hgy; 99: 585– 92.

Thirumurthi, S. and Graham, DY. (2012). Helicobacter pylori infection in India from a western

perspective. Indian J Med Res 136:549 –562.

Lebbad, M.; Petersson, I.; Karlsson, L.; Botero-Kleiven, S. and Andersson, JO. (2011).

Multilocus Genotyping of Human Giardia Isolates Suggests Limited Zoonotic Transmission and

Association between Assemblage B and Flatulence in Children. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 5: e1262.

John, D.T. and Petri, W. A. J. (2006). Medical Parasitology. 9th edition.; USA. 48-55.; 393-395.